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Gardening on the Planet,   Science Says,   Uncategorized

Natives – A Moving Target?

Will the wild orchids in my woods survive the changes of the next half century?

 

There was a certain irony in the timing, given America’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Agreement.  Still, last week was the time when a group of Master Gardeners had asked me to give them a lecture about the possible effects on gardening of global climate change – and how gardeners can do their part to meet this challenge.  Because my wife is a geologist who studies long-term climate change, I had expert help with the scientific aspects of this issue.  Different climate-modelers present different scenarios of what is likely to happen as our current century unwinds, but virtually all agree that unless we kick our addiction to fossil fuels, our climate will grow significantly hotter by the end of this century.  Indeed, the way things are going now, it looks as if by 2100 summers in upstate New York will be as warm as those of present day South Carolina.

Obviously, this sort of transformative change will have many effects on gardening.  One point that particularly troubles me is the impact that it will have on what plants will flourish naturally in our region.  Like so many other gardeners, I support the use of native plants – that’s a fundamental part of the message of Garden Revolution, the book I wrote with landscape designer Larry Weaner.  But what will be native when the trees we are planting now mature?  By century’s end, even if we moderate our use of fossil fuels, suitable habitat for our current forest types are predicted to have drifted 350 miles northward.

 

Changes are already underway: already we are seeing forests stressed by the northward movement of what were formerly southern pests such as the southern pine beetle, which was formerly confined to the Southeast but which is now moving into southern New England.  Many kinds of wildlife are also stressed by the change in the seasons.  The earlier arrival of spring is prompting the earlier emergence of many insects; animals higher up the food change such as birds have typically adjusted less to climate change with the result that they are hatching chicks at times when caterpillars and other customary foods for the nestlings have passed.

Other than the obvious point that gardeners must do their part to moderate climate change – for example, minimize the use of dirty two-stroke gasoline engines and the application of greenhouse-gas-generating synthetic nitrates – the answer to our changing ecosystems is beyond me.  Given that Americans in particular seem loath to address their addiction to fossil fuels, perhaps the most realistic response is to accept that our current native plant communities are on their way out, or at least on their way north.

 

Posted by on June 5, 2017 at 11:46 am.   This post has 8 responses.
Designs, Tricks, and Schemes,   Gardening on the Planet,   It's the Plants, Darling

Finding Native-Plant Beauty in the Bronx

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While I was visiting New York City earlier this month I didn’t JUST visit the High Line.  Also on my agenda was the Native Plant Garden at the New York Botanical Garden, about which I’d read so mucIMG_1729h when it opened this spring.  It was designed by DC-area landscape architect Sheila Brady.  She’s now co-owner of the famous Oehme van Sweden firm, which is credited with creating what they called “the New American Garden,” composed of sweeps of grasses and other perennials, the naturalistic look that’s become so popular over the years – thankfully.

Here’s how Adrian Higgins describes the designs of OvS, from his review of this garden in the Washington Post:

Their designs were not necessarily new or American, but they were using massings of grasses and perennials to create blocks of color and texture in a way that was novel and gained attention. About half the plants were of American origin, although some had been given legitimacy in Europe.

Lobelia cardinalis in bloom.

How to Wow with Native Plants
I think there are great lessons for the eco-conscious home gardener in the success of this new garden, with its use of plants native to “the Northeast,” according to its website.  Actually, Brady and her team avoided a strict definition of “native,” and instead drew on plants native to a huge chunk of the U.S. – from Virginia to Southern Maine and as far west as the Great Plains.

And perhaps more importantly, the garden was designed to be beautiful, rather than to replicate how things would look without human intervention.  Again I’ll quite Higgins:

The garden rejects a conventional idea of presenting native flora as replicated eco-systems and instead gathers American plants with a gardener’s eye for color, texture, combinations, seasonal peaks and other aesthetic ambitions. The planting schemes are complex, and besides the mind-boggling number of plants involved — 90,000 perennials, grasses, bulbs, shrubs and trees in a 31/2-acre area — Brady and her collaborators have used varieties bred for improved garden performance.

So, the third tip for choosing native plants that wow is to include cultivated varieties – because they’ve been cultivated for “improved garden performance.”  I know that stricter adherence to what’s “native” wouldn’t allow cultivars but this garden, with its public role and $15 million price tag, needed to look terrific – and it sure does.   I saw it this month, in its first season, and it wow’ed me.

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Goldenrod and Little Bluestem in the dry meadow.

The 3.5-acre Native Plant Garden includes a large water feature, wet and dry meadows, small groves, and over 400 species and cultivars.

New York

The “Split Rock” above is a “glacial erratic” – meaning it’s not found where it’s believed to have originated.  The split was caused by hundreds of freeze-thaw cycles.  Next to it and elsewhere throughout the garden is Milkweed in bloom.

This style of native-plant garden seems to be spreading to other public gardens.  The Brooklyn Botanic Garden recently opened its expanded Native Flora Garden with a more designed and garden-like look than it had originally, when its design goal was to exactly replicate what was there hundreds of years ago.  I saw it a couple of years ago and agree that it wasn’t exactly pretty.

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Wild turkeys love these Highbush blueberries.

In conclusion, I think this native plant garden will go a long way to promoting the use of native plants.  Well done, Sheila Brady and the NYBG!

Posted by on August 23, 2013 at 7:47 am.   This post has 9 responses.